The tradition of beehive on the territory of our country is extremely old being practiced since the Dacians. We also have an original document, dated 1734, found in the high school library in Aiud and called Carticica for albianarit. It encompasses habits related to beekeeping, how to care for alabin and how to multiply them.
The most important forms of beekeeping are:
- Bee hunting or hunting.
- Albinaritul in primitive hives of wools called buduroaie.
- Combine in systematic hives.
Each of these forms represented a stage in the development of this craft.
In his eternal search for daily livelihoods, besides hunting and fishing or harvesting, the man made his way, where conditions allowed, and hunting the wild bees swarms to buy honey. The name of honey hunters is that of "barcars" and the action itself called the verb to "barcui", to search, to go after wild bees. The entire Transylvania is full of such boat names and in Muntenia and Oltenia, there is even a locality, Bârca, situated on the Danube, where there were many woodland forests with wild berries multiplying wild bees.
The barricade is made with an ancient gear, the "barney horn" made from a beef horn. Both horns are closed. The big end with a closet and the narrow end with a plug. . besides the barbecue horn is used a box, lacrita for putting the honeycomb as a bee bait. With the two tools required, the barcara leaves for a bee-billed field full of bees in the morning until evening. The bee is caught easily and inserted into the horn through the narrow end. After a large enough number of bees are gathered, the barcara goes to the forest where he thinks that there are wild hives, puts the hatching horn with the thick end on the honeycomb in the box, removes the lock and the bees fall on the honeycomb. Upon lifting the cone, the honey loaded with honey flies in the direction of their hive in the forest. Barcara is waiting for bees to return with larger aids.
The barcara takes its direction but awaits the return of bees with larger aids. It is only now that the barge is following the bee's path in the woods looking up with memories of the existing trees. After finding the hive, it means the place and the barcar returns the evening when the bees are quiet. The barcar is preparing a fountain, blooming stone or rot, the honey collecting honey or the drill bit. The fumes emitted by the festivale will kill or kill the bees and after this surgery the honey will be removed. The amount of honey obtained is 8-10 kg or sometimes even more. Barricade is only autumn in the months of September - October.
Collaboration in primitive hives, called buduroaie. The first hives, called buduras, were made of trunks of trees that imitated the swarms in the forest. This feature of the entire forest area stretched from Russia to south in Greece and Scandinavia. So the area of the buduraii extends like a wide strip from Spain, over Caucasus to south-east Asia. The boulders were cylindrical in shape and on top were covered with either a stone slab or a plank, and a hole called urdinis was cut down to enter and exit the bees. As a rule, inside the hives, from one side to the other, some betigas were fastened to allow the bees to start building beehives.
Systematic Alternate The end of the last century and the beginning of our century bring radical changes in the whole beehive technology. Systematic, multi-layered hives appear, made from the plank with another shape and arrangement. Inner beggas are replaced with special mobile frames that can be removed without causing bees. The advantages of these hives are that when honey is removed, there is no need to kill the swarm, which has led to the intensification of the beehive in all parts of the country.
ORGANIZATION OF BEEKEEPING
The growth of bees in primitive hives was predominantly around the household. In spring the bees were taken out into the garden, where they were left all summer until autumn when the hives were cut, that is, the honey was picked. In Aiud's beehive, it was said that it was good to free the bees in the first week of St. George. Important was the day the bees were being poured.
If Monday were released, they would be sleepy, muddy, sick, dizzy, hideous and stealing.
If you release the bees on Tuesday, they will be quarrelsome, predatory, degrading, pessimistic and hostile.
If you release the bees on Wednesday, they will be strong, strong, victorious, sensitive, greedy, buoyant, fat, economical and will multiply.
If you release the bees on Thursday, they will be constructive, working, hiding, gentle, clothed, obedient, self-preserving.
The products of the beehive are honey and wax. After the roe was slaughtered, the honeycombs drained through a sieve into the dish. The honeycombs were pulled out and honey pressed by the presser. The wax was removed from the honeycombs so the honeycombs were boiled in water in a rare heap bag. Through the press holes the wax drained into a pot of water from where it was gathered with a spoon and put in a bowl to make a slush. After the waxing of the wax, the resulting debris was sold to the ambulance merchants called vostinari or hostinari, who walked from the village to the village with the carriage for the gathering of the feast and the honeycombs without honey.
The worshipers were the suppliers of waxworks that existed through Transylvania, Moldova and Tara Romaneasca. In the beginning, the waiters were only coasters and wax-pickers, not wax makers. Over time they specialized in removing the wax that they marketed as the first waxwork workshop. These vouchers passed the borders to Vienna and the southern Danube carrying the beeswax that they were looking for in these places for candles and cure. Many times to get the wax, the stairs made cracks in the walls of the chimneys, which the bees, because they could not work in the light, quickly grasped the black wax. The most rudimentary process of making candles was the one with palms on a fest. The wax twisted with fire-warmed palms on a doorway hung. These candles did not have a fine look.
In another process, the festoon was fastened to the holder, above a vessel. From another wax-filled wax, in which the wax was permanently liquid, take a metal spoon and pour the wax up the wick. The wax flowed over the fence by covering it with successive layers from top to bottom. The Rochedo is repeated several times in a row until the candle has the desired size.
Besides the above mentioned processes, candle making was done in candle workshops, which used a horizontal wheel, where more workers worked hundreds of candles a day. More recently, the candles were cast into a candle-shaped metal pipe.
In addition to the main products, honey and wax, from bees growing, other important products such as marsh, propolis, bee venom rt. The whole range of products mentioned was used either in daily nutrition or as a medicine and honey in combination with tuna and some weeds were given as a cure for various diseases of the stomach, honey combined with some flowers and horseradish was good in "dry sickness" (tuberculosis) .
The study of the beekeeping proves that the native population had bee growing permanently in all historical periods, and which continued almost in unchanged forms until the beginning of our century, remaining an important occupation to this day.