Arhelogy provides us with a rich material about this craft, whose products have accompanied everyday life to the grave. As a rule, ceramic objects are the only documentary testimonials that have come up to us. The history of the pottery was confused with the history of civilization and the pottery craft was the human manifestation that constantly became a characteristic of some peoples or of some historical periods (Cucuteni). After the discovery of the fire a great discovery was that of the firing of clay, from which ships were shaped the daily needs of man. The Romanian ceramics has a look that is its own.
In the historical and economic evolution of the human society on our lands, the pottery culture can be divided into three great epochs: the prehistoric age, the Daco-Roman era and the Roman epoch.
- Our prehistoric ceramics is one of the most interesting and varied European ceramics, which is a national richness that reflects on the ornamental motifs inherited by our potters.
- With the occupation of Dacia by Trajan, a new period of influence of the Greek Roman civilization began on the local Dacian civilization, which had an overwhelming influence on our ceramics.
- The third period begins 500 years ago at the time of the formation of the Principalities and continues to the present day. We share this period in two distinct parts: the Romanian Middle Ages until the reign of Serban Cantacuzino and the second in the 18th and 19th centuries. The pottery of these periods can be called the Romanian ceramics.
In Muntenia and Moldavia, starting with the 14th and 15th centuries, ceramic and enamel ceramics were produced in sgraffito technique, techniques of Byzantine origin. In Muntenia we have the centers from Curtea de Arges and Turnu Severin, and in Moldova the center of Stupca, the only places for the production of luxury ceramics from XV-XVI century in these Romanian provinces. In the rest, the pottery was developed in all parts of the country, continuing traditionally, from the prehistoric age to this day. Unlike ceramic enamel ceramics, it often can not serve the exact periodization, being easily confused with one that has hundreds of thousands of years, with the same motives and forms of expression.
Procedures and techniques
The extraction of the potter's land was made from the various places of the village, where the clay was good for the pots and the highest purity called "lutars" and arranged for this purpose. In the whiskers, the carrots are cut into thin slices to be baked. Taken home with the cart, the land is put in the bin, cleaned as much as possible by impurities and stones, then pour water over clay. The craftsmen say the clay is leavened, or soaked, to take its water. For the water to penetrate well in the ground and not to cover covers with a tol. The Earth is watered several times until it becomes cleansed. The sleeping period lasts from two days to the next when it becomes mature and sufficiently elastic. The process of leavening takes place in the summer months when the land is warm enough and the thermal agents work favorably on it. If the craftsman does not have a rush, use the process of removing the snow in winter and leaving it to "degerare", resulting in the best quality for work.
After growing up, the eastern land is taken out of the basin and placed on the plank or on the ground in order to drain the water, then it is well knocked with a wooden hammer or wood for harvesting and removing the air from the clay. From that clay are made Bulgarian still contain impurities like sand, sticks, leaves, roots that are eliminated by turning, ie cutting the clay in thin slices with a knife. At the end of the cleaning operation, go to the ironing. Ground calculations are done with the foot to homogenize the clay slurry. Calcification is done on the toll or on the deck, before being sanded so that it does not stick to the support on which it is running. The earth is placed in the shape of a not too thick coil so that by heaving the heel or the edge of the foot it reaches the platform. The calculations were usually made in the wheel, from the edge of the bin, to its center, from left to right and then backward, until the ground was made "untouched", that is, the foot of the heel as a paste. Today, in many industrial centers, traditonal ironing with the feet is abandoned following the introduction of a machine called a mixer, a plant made up of two rolls that swirl against each other like crushing grapes. Calcification is followed by framing in hand when clay becomes as a wax without breaking and spitting. From the clay so fractured, there are holes, pinions, bulgars or cakes, which then leave some time on the table beside the potted meal, the water flows out of them. Calipers so prepared are the future vessel. Pea usually uses greasy plastic tallow grease that is often weakened by the addition of sandy clay or a thin layer of sand, which gives clay more resistivity and quality.
The potter's wheel is made up of two discs, the upper one called ragal, on which the vessel is shaped from a clay and the bottom, the wheel, joined together by a spindle. Only men are working on the wheel of the village because craftsmanship requires not only craftsmanship, but also power, to turn the large wheel of the wheel with force and at the same time mold the clay with the hands, turning it into the bowl. The ship making process requires great craftsmanship, attention and skill.
A good piece of pre-prepared clay is centered on the top disk by pressing or plowing, while the disc rotates continuously. The potter, with his hands soaked in thick water called clay or borobotino milk from the dish that he had in hand, acted on the clay by pressing, impressing his desired shape: pot, pot, chiup etc. The large rotation imprinted on the potter's wheel and the pressure of the hands on the clay shell forces it to take the form of a turret, which then, by pressing down its large fingers, is stretched. After that, the master gives birth to the first contour of the bowl, then with the fichies it gives him different shapes. When the bowl is close to its last shape, the cold potlar hands a hand inside the bowl and the other outside to check if the vessel walls are uniform and some of the larger yarns are not mixed. The last operation that the potter is doing is to give with a piece of skin called "potlog", wrapped in a milky clay, called "fleece" on the surface of the pot to smooth it out and clog it any holes that could remain after modeling. Modeling a vessel takes about 2-3 minutes for a skilled craftsman.
The drying of the vessels is done only in the shade and protected from the wind so that the drying of the vessels in the air stream forces the partial drying to the surface that causes the cracking of the vessels. After drying, the dishes are packed with agabar or gaila to hide small defects and enhance future colors. Agoba est it is actually a white or blue humor over which the dishes are sprinkled with different colors or ornamented with the brush. After the ornamentation, the pots are boiled or burned and ready to be used.
In the case of enamelled vessels, they are peeled after the first bake to have no defects, they are rusted, immersed or anointed with enamel and then burned again. Enamel is obtained by the potter made of oxidized lead by heat, which after burning becomes transparent and glossy. Lead oxide is mixed with the water that is added to the ash extract and the sand is rich in quartz quartz. The mixture is ground with the enamel mill to obtain a very fine liquid that lies on the walls of the vessel. The enamel vessel is dried and then placed in the oven where the enamel melts colorless giving the vessel a great glow and the hardness required. Burning a dishwasher is done for hours at high temperature. Burning is the oxidant reason why our ceramics is predominantly red. The burning is activated by an intense air flow and when the temperature rises from 400 to 800 degrees the red ceramics are obtained and if the burning passes 900 degrees, the color of the ceramics turns from red to black and if it contains ceramic kaolin becomes white .