PROCESSING OF VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL FIBERS
Textile plants, hemp and flax were the main plants grown since ancient times for the needs of life in the Romanian peasant's household. Canepa and flax have a wide use in our country in the domestic, textile, food and folk medicine industries, these plants being considered autochthonous, while the cotton was introduced in the Romanian agriculture late in the middle of the last century, brought from Turkey. In the domestic industry it was often used as a textile plant, nettle.
Regarding hemp, archaeological evidence leads us to the vremurilo mist, descending to the Neolithic, where traces of fabrics printed in clay, as well as a lot of fusaiole and weights, used to stretch the threads to the war of vertical weave.
Specialists assume that the oldest fabric discovered in Romania at Sucidava Celina by Marin Nica, dated from the Neolithic to the Bronze Period, is a linen fabric, twisted in two pieces with a twisted twisted warp and a simple twist. In the Garvan setting, many fusaiole and weights for tissue warfare were discovered, testifying to the heel and torso of hemp and flax since the Bronze Age. Herodotus said that the Thracian country grows the hemp and the flax that they use to make their clothes.
The name of these plants comes from the Latin language canapa or cannalus and linum linen representing a proof of the continuity cultivation of these plants from ancient times. In the Dinogetia fortress in the village of Garvan in Tulcea County, the entire inventory attests to the fact that flax and hemp passed through the same range of technical operations as today: melted, melted, brushed, twisted, weaving, resulting from this process, three categories of fine, intermediate and thick-
The archaeological evidence shows that flax and hemp culture was widespread throughout the country. In Dobrudja and Baragan, the hemp grew in a wild state without the necessity of being cultivated, as it was in sufficient quantities. The sap of hemp and flax is usually done at Armindeni, meaning early spring, especially by emai, because they knew the meaning. Everywhere the field was prepared by autumn and left to go out in winter and grafted with manure, and to drop out of the field vobura was throwing galloping birds. The place sown with hemp was always near the village at the end of the corn cobs or at the bottom of the gardens in the town. The look is repeated in the spring. The land had to be well-grown and fattened, then the seed was thrown into it and the land was smoothed with spice tars because the hemp seed is highly appreciated by the birds. Canepa is of two categories: summer and autumn or winter. The winter is the male and the winter female. The plant that grows earlier in maturity and does not make seeds is summer hemp and the one that barks harder but makes seeds is autumn. The seed chase does not resemble a place with hemp fiber but interleaved by corn signatures, a thread to allow it to grow strong with many twigs on the main stem. The seed of the seed has several names throughout the country, the most popular being henland, then heaps and dung. Haldy trees are harvested in autumn when the seeds reach maturity, cut off and dry for 7-8 days and then fade on a sloping skewer. The seeds fall to the ground where they are gathered and vented with a sieve.
The summer leap was picked earlier when the stem stalked and the autumn two weeks later when the seeds matured, because it never turns yellow. Hopping the hemp was a strictly feminine activity that the arbans never attended. Gathering is done by pulling a hand, pulling a few threads in his hand, and then shaking it from the ground and placing them until a ham or a glove is made. The glove was made up of several hoods and the zippers in several gloves. The snipes were put to dry either in canopies, or at home near the fences or in the courtyard of the house in the sun. Dry, hemp, shake the leaves and "torture", that is, the teats (floral peaks) were torn off to the thorn, while the summer was overshadowing. After drying the melt was followed: the in-plant plants were introduced in the water for the relative rotting of the wood and the separation of the fiber on it. The melting process is monitored by the housewife, controlled by removing some threads from the melted gloves. The canteen removed from the water too early was too harsh because the fiber was not sufficiently melted. Leaving more time, hemp and flax were destroyed rot and fiber and melted it fall in the poses. Once melted, the canepa was vigorously washed in the water to clean not only the sludge but also the outer film covering the wool, then it was left to drain and then taken to the household and placed in sunny or sheltered fences until complete drying. It follows the melting of the flax and the hemp, which completely removes the woody part of the stem leaving the clean fiber. During the meltdown, the knuckle always shakes, strikes alternately from the head or foot of the melt, strikes to remove all the woody part of the skull, the posterior or the slime, thus obtaining the so-called whales. After finishing the melt, the chicken sticks are placed in a dry place in the house or after the stove. Follows the process of brushing the hemp called and dainty, ragged or heeled.
After processing, from hemp and in were obtained three qualities of yarns / fibers:
- Whips, very long fibers used with warp predilection, for high quality fine panes.
- Lower quality whales, generally used for knocking, knocking
- Only used to beat the beats because they had short fiber and they used thick fabrics, bags, mattresses, bedding. Guy and calves were general terms throughout the country, and the debris, of a poorer quality, had names like: combing, canour, buck, we know, beard, tram.
The high-quality babe was bestowed on the future bride and groom's bride's bridesmaids, and there was also a "bustle of the bride" in which the cross bloomed. After the melting of the plant fibers of hemp and flax follows the torsion of the tissues. The main tools for this operation are the fork, the torque wheel and the spindle. From the roe deer and hemp, the pins are attached to the fork.
CLASSIFICATION OF FORK
We can divide the forks into:
- a) Furca de brau
- b) Chair with seat
- c) The toe with the soles
- d) Ceiling suspended fork
The fork is the tool that attaches to the quilt and the yarn is spinning the yarn, wool or hemp, thinner or thicker, wrinkled or less twisted to be propitious to different fabrics.