PROCESSING OF VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL FIBERS
Textile plants, hemp and flax were the main plants grown since ancient times for the needs of life in the Romanian peasant's household. Canepa and flax have a wide use in our country in the domestic, textile, food and folk medicine industries, these plants being considered autochthonous, while the cotton was introduced in the Romanian agriculture late in the middle of the last century, brought from Turkey. In the domestic industry it was often used as a textile plant, nettle.
Regarding hemp, archaeological evidence leads us to the vremurilo mist, descending to the Neolithic, where traces of fabrics printed in clay, as well as a lot of fusaiole and weights, used to stretch the threads to the war of vertical weave.
FURCA DE BRAU - is worn by women. This fork is the most widespread in the whole of our country. The advantages of this type over other types of forks are obvious by easier handling in the torsion process. Forks were made of a thin, thin tree branch, on which a few thin branches joined, forming a knot to which the quill was attached, in a position to be able to spin from it, or of flat wood, beautifully ornamented with floral, geometric, or other. Forks were given by boys to the girls they wanted to marry.
STEEL FURNACE - is much larger than the brass fork and has a three-legged seat that women put their legs in during the torso for greater stability of the fork. The torso is only in the position of sitting on another chair or lavita when women gather in deserters on long winter nights. The fork with the seat is found alongside other types of forks in almost the whole center of Transylvania and very rarely in some Moldovan localities.
TURN FOREWORD - is slightly larger than the brass fork, with one of the ends a foot over which the woman is placed to fix it in a vertical position. This type of torso fork is spread mainly in central Transylvania and in the north of Moldova.
FURNACE OF LENGTH or TANK - was fixed with its bottom end in the floor and the other in the ceiling or the beam in the ceiling, being held between the knee during the torso. The cairn is linked to the height of the seat on which the torch is placed. This type of torso fork is found only in Central Transylvania.
ROUND SPINDELING, can be included in the category of peasant installations, which has spread all over the country with great rapidity due to its incomparably higher productivity. The movement of the wheel is imprinted with the foot, the hands being riddled with the spindle with which you have to twist the thread, and thus, it pulls out of the quill with more ease and speed, synchronizing with the spin of the wheel. In the history of civilization, making and using tools is a huge qualitative step, but incomparably larger is the village by switching from the tool to the installation, passing from fork to spinning wheel.
THE SPINDLES The second tool needed to pull the thread is of two types: the spindle with the mobile and the spindle with the fixed socket with a thickened end. A special sphere as a shape and function is a druga, a larger one and thicker to use for thicker roping and twisting of the cake.
The twisted spindle in some parts of Transylvania is provided with a wooden circle in the lower part to favor twisting, called the cranium, and some of the fuses were provided with larger and heavier holes such as those used by the aroma, tronconic, beautifully ornamented with cosmogonic motives - sun, moon, stars, man, etc.
But the oldest tool on the territory of our country has been and is the tooth as Romulus Vuia says. This seems to have been invented right at the beginning of the torso and used to this day.
Made of hardwood it is made up of two parts: a hook and a trunk. The hook is inserted into the trunk so that it has a horizontal position in the balance. At the beginning, the stew was used to spin and twisted, then, after the appearance of the spindle served more and more only twisted. Now, the spoon is more used to twist thick cords and cords from hemp yarns and especially goat hair. Droga and spruce appeared much later in the blooming period of the Greek Roman period.
After the torso of hemp and flax, the yarrows, the dolls, the motocross, the yarns run from the coils to the splinter, a simple tool with two horns and a pawn. The cloths, with the cake on top of them, were fastened into a fuser, a tool made up of a multi-hole soles, two parallel ribs on the edges, and a slit-hole with holes. The spindle was inserted with one end in a hole in the sole and in one of the peppers in the vetic position, which ensures a slight rotation at the rasp. The scraping was also made directly from the spindle held in the hand, the position of the rack being horizontal on a table edge or on two seat ends. The cake is alternately passed through the two ends, obtaining a yarn bundle of elliptical shape with the yarns in the middle.
The obtained yarns were cleaned by the cake of the cake, which was made by baking in a wooden bowl made of doage. In these containers, the wreaths were alternately placed one row of cake and one of ash until the pot was filled, then boiled water was poured over them and rested for several hours and the operation was repeated for three days. Then the reeds were put in cold running water to wash well from the ashes and froze and dry. In order for the reeds to be well bleached or to get a golden yellow color, the barley was put on straw of barley and oats which favored with ash, yellowing of the yarns. The ribbons remain woven until the trowel is trowelled. After wounding the yarns and making the rounds, follow the wicking. The first forms of use were "on the wall of the house", "on the fence", "on the harrow", "on the stakes beaten in the ground"
THE TECHNIQUE OF WARP - was the same for all types of use: two cakes with a cake, placed in a deep dish so as not to jump out during the use, one end of a thread was taken, and it was caught on a nail, , hitch corner, etc., right or left, in the bottom row. Passing the threads over each of the teeth or nails, as long as the canvas has to be. Spiral up to the top of the grape or bunch. The length of the thread passed over the teeth is called the radius. The thread came back, repeating the route down. On all systems, thread counting and countdown are done. The number of threads is always equal, equal to the number of teeth from the back, so the fabric will be as wide as long and will be spared.
After the war operation, the war followed and the wicked. The warp, or the tear, is placed on the scrolls of the war, and to keep the crossed wires, - the stitch is used by the mob. The threads on the roller come two or two over one another, passing consecutively between the two, four or more items, and they fall backwards. To perform the upward movement, the objects are related to the pulleys, the handles, and on the side down from soles or backs. The backscreen binding binds to the pre-roll for the tissue. This operation is called the bridging of the canvas.
Horizontal tissue war is widespread throughout the country. The loom is usually made of hardwood, having the following parts: the legs, the beads, the scrolling roller, the fist, the back, the brick, the handkerchief, the beard, and other.
During the tissue, the warp is passed through the wound, which sticks to the tubes with the help of the juice. The pipes are mounted in the elongated bobbin, then rolled up from one side to another, after the joint was opened. Each bead thread beats violently twice with the carpets in which it is mounted back in the direction of the weave. down, creating the tissue on the principle of alternate, peculiar intersection of warp bats.
To protect itself from dust and lint, the weaver greases flax or hemp yarns with "cir" a flour of corn flour with flax seeds. The mixture is given on the warp threads from the backs to the joints of the joint, giving the yarns the necessary elasticity and not scratching. Techniques of weaving in the Romanian village environment have reached a great mastery.
In the afternoon, we mention that the processing of animal and vegetable fibers was one of the oldest crafts of the inhabitants of our country, the techniques, the working methods and the tools being general.