In these General Considerations on the National Ethno-Folklore Patrimony, we will go into the details of the customs, traditions, holidays, port, legends and superstitions, as well as on household objects and folk techniques.
We will discuss the following ethnographic areas:
Maramures, Oltenia, Moldova, Banat, Muntenia, Crisana, Dobrogea, Transylvania,
In order to be able to give a course of these, celebrations, traditions and customs in which the popular harbor is played, songs are played, stories, snoads and riddles, legends and household tools or masks accompanying popular games or collins begin their treatment with the New Year.
So: New Year's Celebration is a cyclical feast, a crossing over the threshold. The 12 days that begin on December 25 and end on January 6 represent a quintessence of the 12 months that come. We speak of old and new ingenuation, known and unknown, present and future.
Holidays are the passage of the year. During their time there are ritual and ceremonial acts. Difficult to distinguish between ritual and ceremony, because folkloric phenomena are generally global. What is certain is that during the 12 days it is not something everyday. What's really going on?
First, we seek by divination to see how it will be. Then we do the onion calendar to see how it will be the agricultural year, or the girls are looking to see how they will grow and where they will be nice. It is therefore the first thing people do in this period to figure out how to move from the past into the future, how they have to decide on the future in this moment.
The second act we usually do is augural acts. You have to do in this present everything that can be auspicious for the coming year. The new year is in Maramures "one day in the year" or "festum incipium". As you started, it was the other year. You did not just have to do augural acts but avoid doing what could be auspicious.
Then you would have to worship, to do acts of prosperity, so that you can go well. The New Year's New Year system is centered on the perpendicular axis in which we play with the three oppositions we seek to make, so that we can move from the old to the new one.
In this way, a reading of the ceremonial or ritual text, which is the new year, is a great discourse that the human community is making on its passing from the past into the future, in this segmentation of unremitting time in recurring recurring periods.
The solutions I give for switching from time to time are actually behavioral strategies. That is to say, mankind said: in order to pass in the coming year, you must not do "such and such." In fact, this whole operation, which we call ritual or ceremonial, is just a strategy, behavior towards ourselves.
What is most important is as a day of the year, a "festum incipium". New Years, that is, the 12 days, are a prefiguration of the whole next year. Not just a mathematical prefiguration, that is, not just the 12 days corresponds to the 12 months, but a prefiguration of the situations in which man could be found and the solutions that the learner could elaborate. Thus, the Transylvanian plugus, is a primitive primitive agriculture treaty, a prefiguration of what man has to do from the sowing until he reaches the coils.
In this sense, we can find in the poetry of carols, prefigured these solutions. That is why we do not wonder that in the poems of the carols there is Mester Manole, Miorita, Sun and Moon, The Deer, because these carols are in fact poetic forms of old rites.
Master Manole is only the poetic form of a sacrificial rite to build a building. This rite was spread all over the world, and Frobenius cites Africa as a concrete rite of this kind. It is a poetic metaphorical form of a thing that existed as a rite, then myth and ours still exist today as poetry.
Miorita is also a metaphor. In a difficult situation where man fails to escape a death he does not deserve then he tries to escape jumping into the metaphor.
As for masks games, they may not be related to very complicated matters about ancestors. They can simply be games such as the Romanian Saturnals, the end of the ritual and ceremonial period, the hard times, because it is not easy to live in the daily, the more you live in the ceremony. On the contrary, it is sometimes harder to live in this sacred superior plan. In order to get out of this plane and to go back to the daily you need to untie. Masks games are a kind of disillusionment so you can do what you can not do in the daily. In this way, masks are at the end of the ritual or ceremonial period, a kind of purification, allowing us to enter more freely in the new period that comes. That is, we have done everything we could to figure out how it will be the year that comes through the rituals quoted, to act upon it through the ritual, remembering all the solutions that have been developed for centuries for the various situations in which we have, we find and at the end we release all the strains from the social pressures and constraints to get more free in the coming year.