Extracting the stone it is part o the traditional craft of stone processing, one of the romanian traditional crafts, specific for the people living in the mountain area where this material were much easier to find.
Extracting the stone
The stone for various uses or lime is extracted from "quarries", "bathrooms", "varariata". Most of these are stone quarries located on the surface of the soil less deep. Stone bolts are picked from the surface of the soil and transported at home, the furnace and tools are processed. In some parts of the country, the stone is collected from the riverbeds of the nearby rivers. Rapid rivers carry large amounts of rock across the river during melting of snow or heavy rains. That is why many ovens were located on the banks of the river serving as limestone carpets to the ovens. This was the easiest way to buy the stone from ordinary pits where the stone is perforated, cracked, revealed, etc. The local name of the quarries varies from the area to the area, receiving local terms such as: tusk, bath, crate or clean, but it is often used as the generic term of stone quarry.
This term is a neologism because in Oltenia for this term is used Gora Pietrei or pure and impale Rock. In Moldova, the places where stone and limestone are removed are called shedding. Those in the north of the area eject the rock from the boulders, in the Banat of Stone Stones, and those from Dâmuc in the place called Stone of Lucius. This terminology of places has local dialectal dialects, but they are often the same names, no matter the area, speaking of a terminology unit.
The transport of stones and limestone to the cutter was made with the oxen, the horseshoe or the horse. In the Apuseni Mountains the carriages had a special construction with the "loitrele" sides raised almost vertically to avoid losing the stones on the road from the quarry to the burning kilns. In the Bicaz-Moldova area, the limestone and limestone is transported by cotigua, with a cart with a corrugated cart or a cart, ie small-wheeled vehicles with loose stools made of stone to put the stone in them.
In Oltenia, the stone is brought from "Gura Pietrei" with a two-wheeled coaster and drawn by a pair of oxen, the load being not too big.
Generally for all areas of the country where the rock is being used, special means of transport are used. In the work of removing the stone from the boulders, only the men are working on the broken and carved stone.
The tools used by craftsmen and seed breeders can be used in several groups of uses as follows:
- Perforation tools
- Tools for breaking and splitting stones.
- The tools to hit and break the stone the windmill, the hammer, the barons.
- Gears have different names from village to village although many of them are very close.
For example, in Vidra, the stone tooling is called "cramp", that is to say, the sharp-edged taper on both ends, "parang", a range of round iron to the body, may be square and pointed at one end called a gene. Other tools are "whirlwind" or "fisty", that is, the usual square-shaped hammer with two edges.
The Masters all the tools necessary to remove the stone in the following way: "nada" a kind of rectangular pyramid rectangular dictates, "stoicaz" - a tool with a 4-nape tip, 40-50 cm long, with which it strikes to crack the rock, the "broken hammer" - the sharp-edged stump at both ends called in some parts "cramba"
Generally speaking, the terms are a proof of the seniority of this engagement. The tools were usually made by local craftsmen and a good part of these tools are attributed to the Dacian period, which then continued in the feudal and modern epochs.
The techniques used to extract the stone
At the extraction of stone in the territory of our country in the handicraft centers are certified the following techniques:
- a) burst
- b) explosion
- c) cutting