Constanta is the biggest Romanian port on the Black Sea and one of the main ports in Europe. Its history starts in the 7th century B.C. when its name was Tomis, which makes Constanta the oldest attested city on the Romanian Territory. The importance of Tomis, increased after it became part of Roman Empire, especially during the reign of Constantine the Great from whose name the current name of the city derives.
Constanta City - Constanta is the biggest Romanian port on the Black Sea and one of the main ports in Europe. Its history starts in the 7th century B.C. when its name was Tomis, which makes Constanta the oldest attested city on the Romanian Territory. The importance of Tomis, increased after it became part of Roman Empire, especially during the reign of Constantine the Great from whose name the current name of the city derives. Besides Romanians, the population of Constanta also includes Turkish, Lipovans, Tatars, Greeks and other minorities. The mixture of architectural styles makes Constanta one of the most charming cities of Romania. The northern part of Constanta is Mamaia beach resort the largest and the modern one along the Romanian Black Sea Coast. In 2012 it was choose the best European beach resort as clubs and night activity on a contest in Monte Carlo.
The Casino - is the image of Constanta. Placed on the promenade, the imposing Art Nouveau building was designed by a French architect and opened in 1910 in the presence of Prince Ferdinand the future king of Romania. Shortly after, the casino became one of the most visited in Europe and attracted people passionate about gambling all over the world. During the war, the casino became the target of bombardments, but it suffered only little damage. It was transformed into a campaign hospital during the war period but afterwards it turned back to its normal activity and continued to give rise to intense passions among the lovers of luxury.
The Port The history of Constanta can be traced back to the ancient times and is closely linked to the activity of the port. The large port of Constanta is situated at the crossing of important commercial roads and is one of the key distribution centres serving Central and Eastern Europe. There is also a popular yachting marina below the old town.
Dolphinarium The Natural Sciences Complex in the northern part of the city near Mamaia, includes a Dolphinarium where dolphins and sea lions are trained, a planetarium an observatory and a mini zoo. The Dolphinarium was open in 1972 and it is first one in South Eastern Europe. The two covered and open air pools were recently upgraded modernized in the last years, and three dolphins were brought here from China in 2010. The complex also includes a public Aquarium situated in the promenade, close to the Casino.
Black Sea Romanian Seaside
On the 244 km of the seaside, there are two sections, separated by Cape Midia: one to the north, with a shoreline with coastlines, a marine and marvelous beaches, less favorable to tourism, and another south, with seashore and open beaches, arranged for tourist purposes. Some less natural natural elements of the seaside, including the flat and monotonous relief of Dobrudja and the sea shore, the optimal low climate are compensated by other features that make it competitive. Therefore, the tourist potential of the seaside is quite complex, imposing itself both on sea water and on spa resources. Some cultural-historical and economic objectives located nearby are associated with the natural ones, giving the seaside the conditions to respond to a wide range of tourist motives: rest, complex balneary (prophylactic, therapeutic, rehabilitation), nautical and sports recreation, and so on As elements of potential, natural factors are required, which form mainly a therapeutic, resting and maintenance complex or "fitting" (thalassotherapy, according to French specialists3). In fact, the balneal cure on the Romanian seashore is a particular form, using all natural natural factors: seawater and beach, marine bioclimate, thermo-mineral waters, therapeutic water and mud, etc. The beach of the Romanian seashore, housed at the base of the cliff between Constanta and Mangalia and with a wide opening in the rest of the seaside, has an orientation that allows it to be exposed to the sun throughout the summer (over 10 hours) what is found on a few beaches in Europe . Downhill in the sea with a smooth slope, which favors sea baths and water walking, procedures of great therapeutic value. Generally, the beach is natural, it has 400-500 m widths in Mamaia and Techirghiol and 18-50 -200 m rest, and the sand, quartz, limestone or organic with high purity and fine grain to medium is almost always dry. In the North Mangalia sector (Jupiter - Capa Aurora), artificial and artificial beaches (over 200,000 m2) were arranged. The sand of the beach is part of the sea-specific balneary complex - thalasotherapy - its physicochemical qualities being used in psamotherapy and thermotherapy.
Talasotherapy is a complex method used for prophylactic, curative and functional recovery, in which sea water acts by the chemical factor (mineralization, salt concentration with predominance of sodium chloride), thermal factor (sea water temperature dependent on the thermal air temperature, intensity and direction of wind, sunstroke, slope of the beach and depth of water) and mechanical factor (sea water as hydrostatic pressure and sea waves). Source: El. Berbec, Small Encyclopaedia of Balneoclimatology of Romania, All Publishing House, 1996. Sea water by its chemical composition (chlorinated water, sulphated, sodium, magnesium), reduced salinity (17-18 g / l), favorable to the organism in therapeutic aspect and osmolar, the water-air thermal contrast, by the action of waves and aerosols resulting from their crushing and floating in the sea air, is a natural factor generating a special form of cleansing - thalasotherapy, indicated in circulatory, locomotor, endocrine etc., but also in prophylaxis. On the other hand, the lack of tides allows for the optimum use of beaches, and the low salinity of the water favors the practice of nautical and especially underwater sports.
Marine bioclimate on the Romanian Black Sea seaside with moderate temperatures (11.2 ° C average, 21.8 ° C average July and 0.2 ° C January), early spring and warmer autumn and prolonged, is warmer than the one on the Baltic Sea or the North Sea and the English Sea and less torrid than the Adriatic and Mediterranean. In the summer, the sunshine duration is 10-11 hours a day, with about 25 days a month, during the summer season over 2,500 hours of sunshine occurring in the year, which favors the sunbaths throughout the year. Other features: high thermal stability (low temperature variations from one hour to another and day to night); low rainfall (350 mm / year), with rare and short rains, which makes the beaches permanently dry; the predominance of clear weather (80 days / year); purity of marine air; uniformity of the degree of moisture; marine breezes, etc. As well as sunbathing baths are part of the sea salt-sand-sea complex, and the exciting-demanding bioclimate is beneficial in the therapy of rheumatic and neuroendocrine disorders. The heliomarine cure is applied between May and September inclusive and is a very demanding climatotherapy form of the endocrine vegetative nervous system.
Outside of the sea, there are two other types of mineral waters on the seaside: the deep ones, brought to the surface by boreholes (the areas of Mangalia, Venus, Neptun and Eforie and those in salt lakes) Mineral waters in the drilling are mezotermal (24-28 ° C) bicarbonate, sodium or calcium, sulphurous, iodurate, brominated and chlorosodic, with a mineralization of 618.8-1038 mg / l and significant geological reserves. These waters, indicated in the treatment of rheumatic, gynecological diseases of the peripheral nervous system, and some and in the internal cure (colitis, bile dyskinesia) are valued at Mangalia, Venus, Saturn, Neptune and Eforie Nord. The salty waters of Lake Techirghiol (55-50 g / l) and less sulphurous lakes of Lake Mangalia, with the same balneomedical properties, being used only in the first lake. The therapeutic sludge is one of the most important natural factors for cleaning and is located in several lakes on the seaside Among them, Techirghiol sapropelic sludge has an important place in terms of exploitable reserves and therapeutic valorization, making the resorts Techirghiol, Eforie Sud and Eforie Nord famous.
We mention that the sapropelic sludge from the Nuntaşi Lake near Istria is being regenerated, but it is used in the local spa facility. At Mangalia, peat mud (chemically decomposed), whose reserves for therapeutic purposes are rather high but used only partially in Mangalia, was also highlighted. On the seaside there are other natural (or man-made) tourist attractions that are of interest to the tourism activity. These are the lakes of Taşaul, Siutghiol (near Mamaia), Belona (Eforie Nord), Neptun, Jupiter, with fresh water, which, besides enriching the landscape aspect, also offers the possibility of practicing nautical sports. Also, the surrounding forests (Comorova), green parks and green spaces are important elements in surrounding areas, but also in maintaining a tonic and unpolluted microclimate. A rich historical and cultural background (archaeological remains of old Callatis, Tomis, Histria, Roman mosaic, architectural monuments, Basarabi cave monastery, museums, etc.) complement the natural potential of the Romanian seaside. of the resources, but mainly by the diversified tourist technical and material base and the share of the tourist traffic, represents the main tourist area of the country.
On the Romanian seaside 13 tourist resorts with different specializations (profiles) were set up, although the prophylactic function of the seaside resorts is The favorable natural conditions for practicing a diversified tourism have allowed the construction of an important technical and material tourist base, the seaside destination being considered the first place in the country in terms of the complexity of the tourism and leisure activity, accommodation and tourist traffic during the summer season, although it has a pronounced seasonality. Forms of tourism: recreation-recreation, heliomarine cure, balneary treatment, nautical pleasure, cultural and transit tourism. Destinations: resorts with rest and recreation functions such as Mamaia, Costineşti, Olimp, Jupiter, Cap Aurora, Saturn, Navodari and resorts on recreation, recreation and balneary resorts including Eforie Nord, Eforie Sud, Neptun, Venus, Mangalia and Techirghiol.