2) The second ethnic and linguistic group of Transylvania, belongs to the fino-ugric languages like finish and hungarian so I speak here about the Hungarians.
The hungarians came here, in Transylvania, as invaders. I know it sounds a little bit tough, but this is the truth and is nothing bad in this. Facts like this was happened everywhere on the european continent.
Their kingdom foundated in the year 1000 because of the baptism of the leader of the hungarian tribes, Vayk, to the catholicism as Stephen, ( king Saint Stephen I-st ) together with all hungarians, became fast, the most important kingdom in the region.
Soon they will start to speak in their documents written in latin, the official language of the catholic religion about “…terra trans silva”.
The latin words trans=beyond and silva=forest will give until the end the name Transilvania which it means, “The country beyond the forests”
Those forests it was really huge covering more about 70% from the Transylvanian (Romanian) territory.
The richness of Transylvania like mines of salt ( a precious aliment in those times) situated in mountains easy to be exploatated, gold mines, silver mines, vineyards, ships, potatoes, wood as construction material were so many reasons to decide the conquest of this territory by the Hungarian kingdom.
The romanians living in Transylvania, where they were organised in some counties, having politic and military leaders, will try to resist to this conquest, but the hungarians which better trained and armed, will conquer Transylvania little by little in the next years. This thing is certified by all the Hungarian historians and chronicars starting with Thuroczi, Anonymus, Reti Sandor, Szilagy Sandor, Antonio Bonfini, Kovary Laszlo aso. Also when the Hungarian kings wants to reconfirm the properties of the Romanian nobiles from Transylvania, they wrote in their documents that “…we reconfirm this possession of the Romanian nobile, over his possession which he have it since the time of the saint Hungarians kings and before them”. What it means the term “saint Hungarians kings” ? It mean starting with the first king “Saint StephenI-st” around the year 1000 and before him. Quod Era Demonstrandum. After the conquest, the hungarian king, to control a teritory where the romanians were and still are, a majority of population, was forced to brought on the eastern side of this region , on the border of the Oriental Carpathians , a nation related with them, szekelys. Those ones are even today, on the same territory as almost 800 years ago. Also, close to them, many hungarians came in this land to establish new homes under the protection of their king. They was settled on the eastern side of Transylvania where they are still leaving today.
Since the beginning, they had from their king, the right to take from the romanians all the properties they need to built their own settlements, which creates many fights with the owners of the land, romanians.
At the end, because of a a rebelion in 1437 of the romanians, they are losing all their politic , social and , military rights becoming tolerated in their own country and used only as workers.
The Hungarians will decide together with the Romanians and the germans in December 1-st, 1918 the union of Transylvania with the Romanian kingdom, fulfilling in these way the dream of centuries of the Romanians to live unite together in the same state.
They receive from the Romanians the warranties to preserve their own language and traditions and this thing were respected, and today in the counties Mures, Harghita and Covasna where the Hungarians and the szekelys are still living after more then 1000 years, they have by the law, kindergartens , elementary schools and highschools in their language and even classes in Hungarian on the largest university of Transylvania and Romania, Babes-Bolyiai from Cluj Napoca. They have acces to television and radio in Hungarian, they can organize social and religious parades and meetings, showing the flag of Hungary and singing the Hungarian anthem in public, speaking their language in public without fear.
When they request to place on the official institutions of the Romanian state the local flag of the szekelys, the gouvernament change the law wich said that only the Romanian flag and the E.U. flag can stay on it and now the flag of the szekelys waving on the same position with the flag of Romania and E.U. on the city hall, of schools, hospitals, courts of law.
Above all the Democratic Union of the Hungarians from Romania, an ethnic party in fact, it was part from each Romanian government since 1992 untill now, having the possibility to offer better conditions of life to the Hungarians. If they succeed or not I invite you to ask the Hungarians from Transylvania.
On the other hand, the szekelys and the Hungarians which on the level of Romania are a minority became a majority in those counties, because many Romanians left from there because of the abuses against them, of the rights the hungarians have as a minority.
In conclusion, they leave here, better then in Hungary having all the rights they need to preserve their nationality which I can`t say about the Romanians living in Hungary.
Coming back to history I would say that, because the hungarian king needs good craftmens, artesans and merchandisers, traders for commerce and to rise the economy, he invite here people from Flandres and south of Germany. Those was coming having the same right to take from the romanians any piece of land, any forest, any mountain they want to settle their settlements.