Climatic characteristics: temperature, precipitation and wind. We have a very good climate with 4 seasons, which let the posibility to practice tourism all year round. in spring , summer and autumn are the best periods for cultural tourism, exploring the nature and hiking and in winter for winter sports.
The average annual temperature varies by 13 ° C. Values above 11 ° C in the south of the Romanian Plain along the Danube, the Seaside and the Delta. In the hilly region between 6 ° C to 10 ° C and in the mountain range, it decreases sharply. Differences are between the west and east due to the Eastern Carpathian Dam.
In January in the E and S-E plain under the influence of the continental cold air mass, the temperature is +3 - -2 ° C. In Dobrogea and Litoral are above 0 ° C due to the Black Sea.
In July, over 23 * C are found only on a narrow strip in the south of the country along the Danube. In the Campia region we have 20-23 ° C. In the hills and hills the average temperature drops below 20 ° C, the isotherm of 16 ° C delimiting the base of the Carpathian arc and on the high peaks slightly above 6 ° C
The average daily temperature records greater winter variations (above 1 ° C) and lower in summer, below 1 ° C. In January, they are -6 ° C in the plain and -12 ° C in the mountain region and in July 23 ° C in the low and 7 ° C in the mountains.
The maxims exceeded 41-42 ° C in the Romanian Plain, 39-40 ° C in the west and 37-39 ° C in the Podisul Moldovei, the Transylvanian Plateau and the Sub-Carpathians. At over 2000 meters 22 * C. The absolute maximum has 44.5 ° C in August 1951.
Minimum temperatures reach values below -30 ° C across the whole territory, except for the seaside, the Banat and partly the Subcarpaths with -28 * Absolute minimum -38.5 ° C in January 1942 at Bod and 38.4 ° C in January in Miercurea Ciuc.
The frequency of days with characteristic temperatures is as follows:
60 per year on the seaside
95-100 in the plains
260 to over 2000 meters
Under 15 days on the seaside
20-35 in the Romanian Plain and the Intracarpic Depressions
Over 155 on mountain peaks
Summer days are produced from March to October and are: Over 1000 in the Romanian Plain, Under 50 on the seaside, missing on the heights.
Tropical days have been produced since May in September: 35-40 in the Romanian Plain, 25-30 in Banat - Crisana, Less than 20 in the intra-carpathian depressions
The annual rainfall amounts are unevenly distributed over the main relief steps, but there is a decrease from the west (600mm) to the east (400mm)
The highest values are in the mountain range where they exceed 1200mm. The pole of rains is found on the west slopes of the Apuseni with 1600mm annually. Anyway, on the west and north, it was raining harder south and east. Due to the Carpathian orthopedic barrage, larger amounts are recorded in the northwest under the oceanic influence and lower in the southwest under continental influence. The lowest rainfall is on the seaside and in the maritime sector of the Delta where large water areas favor the formation of descending currents and the breakdown of clouds.
Monthly rainfall amounts are unevenly distributed during the year. The maximum rainfall is recorded in May-June and the minimum rainfall in February. The highest rainfall amounts of 9200-300 mm per m2 sometimes over 500 mm come from strong front or convective showers and the lowest monthly volumes below 10mm in plain and hills or 20 mm in mountains.
The duration and intensity of the rains are over 190 minutes in the west and north and those slightly shorter than 150 mm occur in areas with fhannel manifestations or continental air adventures. Torrential rains vary territorially depending on altitude, shape of relief, position of the Carpathians, local conditions and time, sometimes accompanied by hail. Intensity decreases with altitude up to less than 3mm in mountainous regions. The longest duration over 4 hours has torrential rains of frontal origin, but their intensity drops sharply below 0.20mm per minute.
Snow falls differently across the country so the average number of days with snow is different from one area to another; 10-20 days on the seaside; 15-20 days in the plains; 20-30 days in hills and meadows; over 40 days in the mountains.
- THE WIND
The winds knock and are influenced by the Carpathians. Within the Carpathian Arch, the wind direction is from N-V to the Transylvania Plain and N-E in the Tarnavelor Plateau. In the extracarp regions the dominant direction of the wind is influenced by the orientation of the Carpathian Mountains. The wind speed is in mountains of 8-10 m / s, 4 m / s on mountain plateaus and under 1m / s in depressions.
Local winds are an important category of winds composed of: Mountain-valley winds (mountain breezes) knock from the high to the low.
Marine breeches are produced due to the thermal contrast between dry and water. They knock out of the water to dry during the day of 10-20 in the evening and the night from the dry land to the morning of 23-08. These breeze phenomena also occur in the vicinity of the large aquatic basins along the Danube for example.
Fohn is a warm and dry wind that forms on the slopes that are sheltered from the circulation of the V and S-V air masses. It has the highest share outside the Carpathians and the Subcarpathian Curvature and in the north of the Fagaras Mountains, where it is also called the Great Wind.
Crivatul is a strong, very cold and dry wind developed at the contact between the periphery of the backbone of the Siberian anticyclone with a depression located in the Balkan Peninsula or the Mediterranean Sea.
Bears winter in N-E in regions of E and S-E. Sometimes the speed reaches 120km / h causing large frosts, shattering and snowing.
Austrail is a dry wind with S, S-V and V direction that beats in all seasons and in the southern parts of the country. Winter causes severe temperature drops and spring and summer dryness pronounced.