THE FINERY of the Head
The women's folk port offers a wide variety of head finery, which raise interesting ethnographic and artistic problems.
Each region, every ethnographic area of the country, sometimes even a single village, has specific head gates in the most varied forms. Each type of head reflects multiple aspects, wearing the seal of the artistic style characteristic of some epochs away from specific life conditions related to age, occasion, social status.
Perhaps more than any other ethnographic element of artistic value, the popular finery of the head keep on the line of tradition, both the archaic forms and the new elements.
It is obvious that today, in our villages, the heads of girls and women have a decorative ornamentation of beauty or beauty. The artistic value of the various finery of the head consists both in the beauty of the fabrics, embroidery or other elements that make up them, as well as in the compositional composition, related to the totality of the folk costume.
Whether it's kerchief, pins, wreaths, etc., they always fit perfectly with the artistic style of the repsective region, harmonizing in shape, ornament and color with the rest of the pieces, completing them.
But besides these general characteristics, the different types of head finery also reveal, as I have already said many interesting aspects of the life of the people. More like other port pieces, the head finery keeps many old elements. The head of the head also has social value, being a sign of the age of civil status, a distinctive sign of important occasions, and sometimes preserving no significance and reminiscent of magical value.
Only married women wound their head well, with the ban of unsealing the head in front of foreign eyes; free hair, knitted, from simple pins is the most complicated and fancy braids, being the aptitude of girls who adorn their head with ribbons leaves, flowers and small adornments. Until marriage, the girls have no other ornaments.
In the female finery of the head of our country we distinguish three distinct categories, the most important which can be also the main types:
Ø the towel of different shapes, dimensions, aspects, materials, which adorns the head, native element, very typical and almost exclusively Romanian.
Ø bonnet of various types
Ø weddings or other types of ornaments of the head, which are occasional elements, especially related to the wedding, and which can be framed with primitive, universal, sometimes initially, magical values.
The towel, has a wide spread area, covering all Moldova, Muntenia, Oltenia and some regions of Transylvania.
The Moldavian veils the roundness of the face, making almost the joining of two triangles: one of the face, with the top up and the other one with the whole bow, with the tip down, by accentuating the width of the head, making a nearly stellar shape, from the whole cooking.
The fine borangic veil in Oltenia, Muntenia and southern Transylvania, make a beautiful oval of the face, extending the air aspect of the head ensemble, through the free ends left behind and in front, like the other coats, the marama is perfectly harmonized with the costume, to which it integrates and completes.
Bonetele - a head finery that specifies the western peoples of the west - which in the Romanian folk port are used in Hunedoara and Banat, with a distinctive form called "ceps" or "conciuri", could be a reminiscence of the phrygian caps spread throughout Europe.
Ceapsa appears as an artistic, graceful complement, but according to the sober sobriety of the costume in that region. It is still worn in Banat, but in the form of a clear two-horned bone.
Conciu. This bonnet in Banat, is heavy, with thread and money, lends itself to the pretentious, sophisticated ornamental style of the costume in this region.
Cununa - The Coronal - The head galaxy represents the wedding. These vary from one geographic and historical region to another as follows:
- In Nasaud and the Cluj region, there are two finery over the ears of feathers and beads called "paunite" as the "paunita" (pea hen) is considered the girl.
- In the Apuseni Mountains we have the crown of green leaves and flowers symbol of spring and symbol of virginity on the threshold of marriage
- In Tara Oasului and Maramures, the head-end of a head that an old woman works for up to 12 hours is very complicated. It combines in the hair of in a very fine hair net, placed on top of which is a wreath of artificial flowers, small ornaments of wool and mirrors. Of course, here, the mirrors, by tradition, preserve the value of an effective element against the demons and the evil eye.
Wedding galleries where they are used are mandatory. Who does not, borrows them.
Apart from these three more important types, the heavy centuries of Ottoman suppression facilitated the penetration of the red buttocks in the south of Muntenia, and some heads of the head, such as those in Sibiu or Tarnave, are influenced by the Western caps, through the feudal Romanian costume of the 15th-16th centuries.
Finally, in some regions of the country, the baseline port, generalized in Central and Eastern Europe, has become increasingly rooted.